The selected water quality parameters, which are effective in eutrophication, included nitrate Further analysis of this data, including calculation of Buoyancy frequency and Richardson number (R), is also included. Lake Stratification and Mixing Many of our Illinois lakes and reservoirs are deep enough to stratify, or form "layers" of water with different temperatures. where A663 and A645 are the absorbance of extract at 663 nm and 645 nm wavelength using spectrophotometer (LabIndia make UV3092 model). chemical precipitation of phosphate followed by sediments dredging and/or promoting aquaculture and fish catch. 1998; Haritash et al. nitrogen expressed as nitrate (mg/l) and TKN (mg/l); most of the nitrogen was present as ammoniacal or organic (as TKN) in the form relatively lower concentration of nitrate (from 1.1 to 6.9 mg/l) compared to ammoniacal nitrogen further strengthens the observation that the condition in the pond were chiefly reducing during the study. A brief overview of characteristics of stratified water bodies is followed by … 1997). Abstract. In addition, two management scenarios, reduction of nutrients loads and reaeration of the hypolimnion, were evaluated to mitigate the eutrophication. Int J Eng Res Technol 4(3):53–56, Haritash AK, Yadav A, Kataria A, Singh K, Mathur K, Goswami S (2015b) Seasonal assessment of trophic state of a Palustrine water body. Correspondence to The dissolved oxygen profile with depth confirmed that reducing conditions prevailed in the hypolimnion. Reducing the nutrient load on the lake may not be possible and alternative actions are required such as minimising or removing the magnifying effects of thermal stratification on the eutrophication process. If there are two distinct layers in the same reservoir then thermal stratification of the reservoir occurs. Sources of Groundwater Pollution. Mar Freshwater Res 48:647–654, Brown CD, Canfield DE, Bachmann RW, Hoyer MV (1998) Seasonal patterns of chlorophyll, nutrient concentrations and Secchi disk transparency in Florida lakes. 2. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Stratification creates water layers with different densities and physicochemical characteristics, which subsequently result in the heterogeneous distribution of algal population throughout the water column. Microscopic view (100×) of Ceriodaphnia spp. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The pond was weakly to strongly thermally stratified throughout the study. Seasonal behaviour of thermal stratification and trophic status in a sub-tropical Palustrine water body. The value of buoyancy frequency (N) and Richardson number (R) indicated complete and strong mixing in surface epilimnion due to the temperature, wind velocity, and current speed during the study with relatively stronger stratification and lower surface mixing during early summer (March–April). Permanent stratification has decisive impact on redistribution of dissolved substances, in deep lakes complete mixing rarely occurs, and it leads to anoxic condition at bottom of the lake (Boehrer and Schultze 2008; Mellios et al. Based on the physico-chemical characteristics, the water body was observed to be rich in phosphate and deficient of nitrogen. Plant Physiol 24:1–15, Article Baltica 23:13–24, Devi Prasad AG, Siddaraju P (2012) Carlson’s Trophic State Index for the assessment of trophic status of two lakes in Mandya district. Email: ©2019 American Society of Civil Engineers, Multiobjective Reservoir Operation for Water Quality Optimization, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, The Water Quality Dissolved Particulate Eutrophication Model, Waterbody Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Modeling: An Introductory Workbook and CD-ROM on Three-Dimensional Waterbody Modeling, Prediction of Thermal Stratification in Proposed Bakhtyari Reservoir with CE-QUAL-W2, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers, Three-Dimensional Ecological-Eutrophication Model for Singapore, Application of the Water Quality Dissolved Particulate Eutrophication Model, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001529, © 1996–2021, American Society of Civil Engineers. However, the thermal stratification is disappeared and mixing condition However, the thermal stratification is disappeared and mixing condition happens in the reservoir by approaching the winter. When the thermal stratification disappears, the nutrients at the bottom would reach the upper water body with the vertical mixing, which would induce algal growth, which would cause eutrophication … Thermal and chemical stratification of water bodies has a strong bearing upon the water quality since it regulates mixing of nutrients/pollutants and affects the aquatic life in it. Int J Geol Earth Environ Sci 2(2):257–265, Yang Y, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Wang W, Ren X, Gao Y, Liu S, Lee X (2018) Diurnal and seasonal variation of thermal stratification and vertical mixing in a shallow fresh water lake. Lake stratification is the tendency of lakes to form separate and distinct thermal layers during warm weather. Email: Graduate Student, Dept. 2). Eutrophication. Warm monomictic: Lakes that circulate freely during the winter, having a stable thermal stratification during the summer. 2016). Cultural eutrophication is a process that speeds up the rate of natural eutrophication by increasing the inflow rate of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) into the water body. present in the DTU pond. 2017). When the strong thermal stratification is formed in the summer months, it could prevent or slow the exchange of water in the epilimnion and hypolimnion, which could induce water quality deterioration in the bottom because of anoxia in the hypolimnion. Variation of temperature with depth is described in Fig. of Civil Engineering, Qom Univ. There were some spatial and temporal differences for trophic state index in the reservoir. Changes in temperature result in changes in the density of water. Moreover, chemical stratification in terms of DO concentration was also observed with significant low concentration of DO at bottom within the average depth of 1.8 m, indicating the strong stratification may have severe impact on bottom-dwelling aerobic organisms. 2. Based on the values of thermal stratification, it was observed that the pond was weakly stratified during winter (January and February) as compared to the summer (March and April). Applied Water Science Many physical factors are responsible of the trophic state of water body; thermal stratification is one of them where density difference in the lake is primarily due to the temperature variation (Yang et al. In this study, thermal stratification is correlated with wind-induced mixing and trophic state to see the effect of thermal stratification on eutrophication.
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